What you can do with a psychology degree?
There are three degree levels in the field of psychology (Bachelor's, Master's, and Doctoral) in the field of psychology, and career options vary depending on the culminating degree.
Although graduates with a B.A. in psychology are well prepared to enter the workforce, most careers in professional and scientific psychology require at least a master's and usually a doctoral degree. So, if your eventual goal is to become a "psychologist," graduate work needs to be part of your plan.
The Bachelor's Degree
A bachelor's level of education in psychology is an important and worthwhile endeavor for your personal and occupational development. The breadth of training psychology majors receive is attractive to employers in a wide range of industries. Psychology majors graduate with:
- A broadly based liberal arts education; versatility
- An appreciation of the many aspects of human behavior, including those associated with normal and problematic development in the childhood, adolescent and adult years
- Strong research and data analysis skills required to gain new knowledge
- Drug/Alcohol Counselor*
- Health and Social Services
- Management or Personnel Trainee
- Marketing Research Assistant
- Medical Research Assistant
- "Not-for-Profit" Administrator
- Paralegal Researcher
- Probation/Parole Officer
- Public Relations Representative
- Sales Representative
- Social and Community Services Manager
- Early Childhood Teacher
(* With state certification)
Places where recent Hofstra graduates of the Psychology Department have found jobs:
- Achieve Beyond
- ALC Precsion
- Management positions at Bed Bath & Beyond and Target
- Developmental Disabilities Institute
- Teacher Child Care
- Hunter EMS
- Mental Health Association of Nassau County
- North Shore-LIU Health System
- SCO Family of Services
A dual major or a minor in another field is useful, but is not required. For example, a Minor in General Buisness might supplement your education if you have career aspirations in marketing or managment. Social Psychology (Psychology 159), Industrial Psychology (Psychology 33), and Organizational Psychology (Psychology 34) would be useful courses, along with Statistics (Psychology 140) and Research Methods and Design (Psychology 141) courses that all psychology majors complete.
Another popular option for psychology majors is the Minor in Neuroscience, particularly for those with specific interest in future careers in biopsychology and health fields. Such a student would take Behavioral Neuroscience (Psychology 177) and/or Clinical Neuropsychology (Psychology 170), and Research Seminar in Behavioral Neuroscience (Psychology 194), along with courses in other departments with neuroscience-related course offerings, such as Biology, Philosophy, and Computer Science.
The Master's Degree
There are two types of master's programs. A professional or terminal program provides training for employment in applied settings such as community mental health centers, business, and school systems (APA, 1986). In constrast, some other programs expect their graduates to apply subsequently for a doctoral program. Those are not terminal programs, as they expect graduate to pursue further education.
If your career goal is to work as a Certified School Psychologist or in an industrial-organizational psychology or business or industry setting, the M.A. is the entry-level degree. To earn an M.A. in School Psychology or in Industrial-Organizational Psychology, you would typically complete two years of course work and an internship.
Check out master's programs carefully for what they offer and learn what the graduates of that program do. All states and most Canadian provinces require that services provided by person's with a master's degree in psychology work under the supervision of a doctoral level psychologist (APA, 1986).
A Masters of Social Work degree (MSW.) is also worth exploring. MSW holders may provide counseling and therapy in community centers and in private practice.
Doctoral Programs and Degrees
Persons with only a master's degree in academic or clinical settings may find a limit to their advancement and earning power as compared with those with a doctoral degree (i.e., the Psy.D or the Ph.D).
All states reserve the title "Psychologist" for persons with doctorates, and a doctorate is required for independent, unsupervised private practice. It is rare these days to find a full-time faculty position above the junior college level which requires less than a Ph.D., unless that person has had extensive field or teaching experience.
A clinical Ph.D. program prepares you to practice psychology (e.g., diagnose mental illness and provide therapy or other services) and/or do research in a university, clinic or hospital setting. Similarly, a Psy.D. program prepares you to practice psychology in private practice, school, and community-based settings. You can also earn a Ph.D. in a research area of psychology, such as social psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, or behavioral/cognitive neuroscience. With a research Ph.D., you can teach at the college level, and conduct research in a university, hospital, government, policy, or business setting.
If your goal is to work in an academic or clinical setting, but your academic credentials are not strong enough to obtain admission to a four (or more) year doctoral program, a master's program may be a good option for you as a first step to a career. A person who does well in such a program can then apply to a doctoral program after having "proved" him or herself. Be aware that not all credits may transfer between master's and doctoral programs, so this route takes more time. If you are interested in the doctorate, it is recommended that you work hard and earn good grades, obtain some hands-on research experience, and try to enter such a program soon after you earn your bachelor's degree.
Doctor of Philosophy [Ph.D.] in Clinical, Counseling or School Psychology
Persons who are interested in both the practice and the science of clinical psychology may want to look into programs that offer the Ph.D. degree. This degree requires at least four years of course work and supervised practical work, and is followed by a year of internship. Ph.D. graduates in these professional specialties then may take a licensing examination to work as an independent practitioner or they may work in academic or governmental settings.
An original doctoral dissertation including a literature review, data collection, statistical analysis and discussion is required. A Ph.D. in clinical psychology offers the possibility of teaching at the college or university level, working as a researcher, and working as an independent private practitioner.
Note: Some doctoral programs [both Ph.D. and Psy D.] require M.A. degrees before they accept students for the Ph.D., but the trend is towards a Ph.D. only program. In these programs, students are not accepted unless they are attempting the Ph.D.
Ph.D. in Psychological Subspecialties other than Clinical Psychology
Although undergraduates often first consider the professional psychology route (clinical, counseling, or school psychology) many if not most of the professors who teach them have obtained a research-based Ph.D. in other fields of psychology.
It is quite important and prestigious to earn a Ph.D. in a research field. Remember, the practice of psychology is based on empirical evidence and research psychologists gather that evidence. Obtaining this kind of degree requires advanced course work and at least a dissertation completed in graduate school, composed of one or more original experiments or research studies. Sometimes the dissertation follows a master's thesis. The following is a partial list of such areas:
- Social Psychology
- Cognitive Psychology
- Cross Cultural Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Industrial-Organizational Psychology
- Biopsychology / Neuroscience
Typically, after completing a 4- to 7-year course of study at a major research university, and sometimes after additional postdoctoral work, holders of these degrees become college or university professors or researchers for the government or industry.
In addition to teaching two to four courses a semester, professors are expected to publish research articles and books, present their work at national or international conferences, and perform service to their communities. Professors at large universities also write proposals for research grants, supervise graduate students who are conducting their master's theses and doctoral dissertations, and teach graduate courses in their specialties. Research based Ph.D.'s provide fulfilling lives for those who hold them and there is great satisfaction in discovering new knowledge.
Students interested in becoming a professor in an academic sub-field should try to gain experience working with a professor interested in that area and, if possible, complete an honors thesis (see below) before they apply to graduate school. It is important that the students develop a strong interest in a particular topic. Then, selectively apply to graduate programs where research on that topic is being conducted. (Typically, graduate professors select students on the basis of their interest, as well as academic excellence, and serve as mentors to the students through graduate school and beyond).