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The Phobia and Trauma Clinic

The Phobia and Trauma Clinic at Hofstra University’s Joan and Arnold Saltzman Community Services Center offers unique and technologically advanced treatments for patients whose fears inhibit their quality of life. The clinic has also successfully treated clients with post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition caused by an unusually devastating and/or tragic experience.

Afraid of flying?

What is a phobia?
Phobia occurs when common fears prevent people from doing certain activities. For example, many people are scared of heights, but some will never fly on airplanes, cross bridges, or take elevators to a top floor of a building, no matter how important the circumstance. 

People who avoid certain life activities because of their fears are experiencing phobia.  There are some phobic individuals who participate in activities, but experience/feel extreme dread. Others miss out on family celebrations, vacation opportunities and professional obligations because of their fears.

Some common phobias treated at the Phobia and Trauma Clinic include:

  • Travel on airplanes, trains, etc.
  • Public speaking
  • Animals
  • Heights

What is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
People who experience life-threatening or highly unusual events outside of the realm of normal daily living may develop post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. The following are examples of events which may lead to PTSD:

  • Experiences in a war environment
  • An accident on an airplane, in a car, etc.
  • Unexpected and devastating tragedies, such as the events of Sept. 11
  • Rape or sexual abuse  

In the months and years following these events, some people suppress their feelings about these incidents, stop communicating with family and friends, avoid social situations, and may become less involved in their roles as spouses, parents and employees. Some may even turn to substance abuse.

Treatment/Exposure Therapy
The Phobia and Trauma Clinic has seen excellent outcomes among clients. Treatment for phobia and PTSD is accomplished by the use of exposure therapy. In exposure therapy, under safe, controlled clinic conditions, patients are immersed in the situations they have long avoided, or asked to confront the traumas they experienced in their lives.
This is accomplished by using a number of therapeutic modalities, depending upon the case. Therapists simulate environments that trigger a phobic response so that patients can learn to better manage their fears. Therapists also use these techniques with PTSD clients so they can begin to heal emotionally.
Techniques include:

  • Imaginal exposure: Therapist-guided mental imagery
  • Virtual reality exposure: Computer-generated environments
  • In-vivo exposure: Confronting fear cues in the real world

Hours and Services
The Saltzman Center is open Monday through Saturday. All therapy services are by appointment only. Hofstra University doctoral candidates in clinical psychology provide psychotherapy services under the supervision of licensed New York state psychologists.

Fees
Fees are set at the time therapy is initiated. Payment is expected at the time of services. Cash, checks, MasterCard and Visa are accepted.

Confidentiality
All services are provided in a professional manner and conform to the ethical standards of the American Psychological Association. Information will not be released without the informed written consent of the client, except where mandated by law or in life-threatening or abusive situations.

Further Information
For more information or to schedule an appointment, please call (516) 463- 7232.


Publications and Presentations from the Phobia and Trauma Clinic

International, National and Local Presentations
Publications

International, National and Local Presentations:

Mandelbaum, F., Drizin, E., Kogel, R., Miller, D., Schare, M.L., Olesnycky, O., Tran, I., & Rabin, L (2019). Developmental trauma and C-PTSD symptomatology: Israeli soldiers and Israeli lone soldiers. Presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Atlanta.

Mandelbaum, F., Schare, M.L., & Rabin, L. (2019). The presence of Druze-Arabs in the Israeli Defense Force: is there a negative bias? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Atlanta. 

Cherestal, S., Grimaldi, S., Costello, K., Schare, M.L. & DeJesus, C. (2019). Remotely conducted versus office-based virtual reality treatment for fear of flying. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Atlanta. 

Gerwell, K. & Schare, M.L. (2019). Effects of self-stigma on treatment-seeking and PTSD scores among veterans and civilians applying for disability benefits. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Texas Psychological Association, San Antonio. 

Schare, M.L. (2018). Multiple Modalities of Exposure Therapy for Trauma Treatment. Mini-workshop presented for the United States Air Force Psychology staff & interns at the Malcolm Grow Medical Clinics and Surgery Center, Joint Base Andrews, MD

Costello, K., Schare, M.L., & Stevens, B. (2018) Effects of message framing on socially anxious undergraduates' willingness to engage in Exposure therapy.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Washington, DC.

Cherestal, S., Schare, M.L. & Tusa, B. (2018). Remotely conducted versus office-based virtual reality treatment for fear of flying. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Washington, DC.

Tusa, B., Schare, M.L., Argento, V., Sanderson, W. & Buqo, T. (2018). The Effect of Remote virtual reality exposure therapy on presence and related technological issues.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Washington, DC.

Bruder, T, Schare, M.L. & DeJesus, C. (2018) Variables influencing veterans’ preference to participate in virtual reality exposure and prolonged exposure therapies.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Washington, DC.

Itzkowitz, M. & Schare, M.L. (2018). Using prospect theory to increase engagement in web-based treatment for depression.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Washington, DC.

Cherestal, S., Schare, M.L., Argento, V., Tusa, B. & Sanderson, W. (2017).  Utilization of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Exposure Therapy Homework Compliance for Claustrophobia. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, San Diego.

Pomerenke, J. & Schare, M.L. (2016). Enhancing imaginal exposure therapy through tactile augmentation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, New York.

Breuer, T. & Schare, M.L. (2016). Effects of values clarification intervention on treatment adherence and homework compliance during exposure therapy protocol for aviophobia. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, New York.

Stevens, B. L., Sanderson, W. & Schare, M.L. (2016). Effects of message framing on socially anxious undergraduates’ willingness to engage in exposure therapy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, New York.

Bruder, T., Argento, V. & Schare, M.L. (2016). Influence of prior gaming experience on presence in Virtual Iraq among ROTC cadets. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, New York.

Cherestal, S. & Schare, M.L. (2016). Utilization of ecological momentary assessment in therapy homework compliance for claustrophobia. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, New York.

Puliafico, S.P. & Schare, M.L. (2015). Test-retest reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity of the Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-3.Paper presentation at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Chicago.

Pomerenke, J.R., Wyatt, K.P., Bruder T.M., Stevens, B.L., & Schare, M.L. (2015). Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Fear Extinction: Does Mindfulness Training Enhance Exposure? Paper presentation at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Chicago.

Bruder, T.M., Pomerenke, J.R., & Schare, M.L.  (2015). Measuring Presence in Virtual Iraq Utilizing Undergraduate Reserves Officer Training Corps Cadets. Paper presentation at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Chicago.

Breuer, T., Schare, M. & Cherestal, S. (2015). Avoiding vs. enduring flying within aviophobics: what’s the difference? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Philadelphia.

Wyatt, K.P., Bruder, T.M., Pomerenke, J.R., Stevens, B.L. Schare, M.L. & Skolnick, R.B. (2014). Effects of mindfulness meditation on fear extinction: does mindfulness training enhance exposure? Paper presentation at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Philadelphia.

Hoffman, D.L. Schare, M.L. Itzkowitz, M.J. (2013, November). No Clinician Left Behind (in the 20th Century): Fusing Psychotherapy With High-Tech Interventions. Paper presented at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Nashville, TN.

Schare, M.L., McKay, D., Moritz, E.K. & Grayson, J.B. (2013, November). Exposure Therapy Revealed: Practical Solutions for Your Patients. Panel organizer and participant presented at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Nashville, TN.

Berger, R.L., Bruder, T.M., & Schare, M.L. (2013, November). Can facing it fix it? -augmenting exposure therapy with mindfulness for the treatment of stuttering anxiety and dysfluency. Paper presented at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Nashville, TN.

Moritz, K., Hoffman, J., Herbert, J.D., & Schare, M.L. (2013, November). Anxiety disorders: navigating legal and ethical dilemmas. Panel participant at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Nashville, TN.

Reynolds, G., Villacci, J.P., Weingartner, K.P., & Schare, M.L. (2013, November). Eye tracking in people with aviophobia: hypervigilance-avoidance vs. failure

Breuer, T.M., Schare, M.L., & Norman, M. (2013, November). Cross-validating the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 with specific phobia measures: the flight anxiety modality & flight anxiety situations questionnaires.  Paper presented at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Nashville, TN.

Stevens, B.L., Skolnick, R.B., Schare, M.L., Scardapane, J.R., Sanderson, W.C, & Wyatt, K.P. (2013, November).  Effects of mindfulness body scan instruction on anxiety and fear tolerance during in vivo exposure procedure for claustrophobia.  Paper presented at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Nashville, TN.

Kairy, T.J., Schare, M.L., Breuer, T., Itzkowitz, M. & Puliafico, S. (2013). Effects of therapist vocal characteristics and obtaining subject feedback in imaginal exposure for snake fearful individuals. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York, NY.

Schare, M. L., Grayson, J., Abramowitz, J. S. &  McKay D. (2012, November) The Art of Exposure Therapy: Applying Innovation and Flexibility. Panel organizer and participant presented at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies. National Harbor, M.D.

Torrell, K. Wyatt, K. P., Schare, M. L., & Puliafico, S. (2012). Caution in hand dynamometer Use: unexpected gender differences in behavioral measurement of anxiety.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies. National Harbor, M.D. 

Mansdorf, E.M., DiScalfani, J., & Schare, M.L. (2012). Modified Exposure Protocol for the Reduction of Repetitive and Consequent Distress Behavior in Children with Autism. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies. National Harbor, M.D.  

Crimarco, N.C., Brown, V.R., & Schare, M.L. (2012). An expectancy-valence model of decision making for those with obsessive-compulsive and hoarding symptoms on the Iowa Gambling Task.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies. National Harbor, M.D.

Wyatt, K. P., Schare, M.L., Skolnick, R.B. & Puliafico, S. (2012). Treatment Preferences for Exposure Versus Cognitive Therapy: The Role of Conviction, Irrationality and Fear in Subclinical Phobias. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies. National Harbor, M.D. 

Skolnick, R.B., Schare, M.L., Wyatt, K.P. & Tillman, M.A. (2012). Aviophobia Assessment: Validation of the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire as a Clinical Identification Measure.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies. National Harbor, M.D.

Schare, M. L., Grayson, J., Abramowitz, J. S. & McKay D. (2011, November) The Art of Exposure Therapy: Reality Beyond the Guidebooks. Panel organizer and participant presented at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada.

Skolnick, R. B, DiScalfani, J., Wyatt, K, Berger, R. & Schare, M.L. (2011, November) Gender Differences in Presence During Virtual Reality Exposure for Aviophobia. Poster presented at the Association for Behavioral & Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada.

Schare, M. L. & Kassinove, H. (2011, March). Promoting Clinical Psychology: Prediction, Treatment and Acceptance of Emotional Disorders. Keynote address presented at the 6th Annual Conference on Dialogue of Collaboration Among Sub-fields of Psychology: Creating New Perspectives hosted at Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Schare, M.L. & Skolnick, R.B. (2011, March). Application of Virtual Reality on Anxiety Disorders: Treating Aviophobia. Invited address at the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Hoffman, D.L. & Schare, M.L. (2010). One year follow up: the effects of massed sessions of virtual reality and imaginal exposure on aviophobia symptoms. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, San Francisco, CA.

Mansdorf, E.M., Torrell, K.A., & Schare, M.L. (2010). Maintenance of self-exposure (i.e. flying) by aviophobic population treated with virtual reality exposure therapy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, San Francisco, CA.

Skolnick, R.B., Strilcic, M.A., Grove, A.B., & Schare, M.L. (2010). Subsets of Aviophobia: Validating What Flying Phobics Actually Fear Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, San Francisco, CA.

Mansdorf, E.M., Torrell, K.A., & Schare, M.L. (2010). Maintenance of self-exposure (i.e. flying) by aviophobic population treated with virtual reality exposure therapy. Paper presented at the World Congress on Behavior Therapy, Boston, MA.

Schare, M.L. (2010, January). Virtual Reality: A New Treatment Option in Phobia Treatment. Invited lecture presented at Hellenic American University, Athens, Greece.

Schare, M.L. & DiScalfani, J.M. (2009, November). Techniques of Exposure Therapy: Imaginal, In-Vivo, & Virtual reality Approaches. A multi-day workshop given as part of a course on behavior therapy presented at the University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania

Schare, M.L. & Grove, A.B. (2009, November) The Reality of Conducting Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy: Expectations, Techniques and Limitations. Master Clinician workshop presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY
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DiScalfani; J. M. & Schare, M. L. (2009, November) Enhancing Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy: Effects of Scent Emission on Reported Presence. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY
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Torrell, K.A., Mansdorf, E.M.,Grove, A.B., Strilcic, M.A., & Schare, M.L. (2009, November) Gender Differences in the Expression of Anxiety Among Aviophobics. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY.

Hoffman, D.L., Schare, M.L., O'Brien, R.M. & Scardapane, J.R. (2009, November) Real-Time Correlates of Behavioral, Self-Report, and Physiological Data During Massed Sessions of Virtual Reality and Imaginal Exposure. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY.

Schare, M.L., Torrell, K.A., Hoffman, D.L., & Mansdorf, E.M. (2009, November)Two-Year Follow-up of Treating Aviophobia With Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY.

Schare, M.L. (2009, October). Virtual Reality: A New Treatment Option for Phobia. Invited public lecture presented for the IDEAS Institute, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York.

Hoffman, D.L., Schare, M.L., Scardapane, J.R. & O'Brien, R.M. (2009, August). Aviophobia self-report measures' inability to predict overcoming phobic behavior. Poster session accepted for presentation at the 117th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Strilcic, M. A., Grove, A.B., Schare, M.L. (2009, August). Immersion: The New Hypnotic Susceptibility? Paper accepted for presentation at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.

Strilcic, M. A., Grove, A. B., Kairy, T. J., Schare, M. L. (2008, November). Anxiety Severity and Symptomatology Expression within Aviophobics. Poster accepted for presentation at the 42nd Annual Convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY.

Hoffman, D.L., Schare, M.L., Scardapane, J.R., & O'Brien, R.M. (2008, August). Augmenting virtual reality exposure with imaginal exposure to anticipatory anxiety. Poster session presented at the 116th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.

Kairy, T. & Schare, M.L. (2008, August). Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy: sigma and generational differences. Poster session presented at the 116th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.

Schare, M.L. (2007). Beyond Video Games: the Treatment of Phobia with Virtual Reality Technology. Presented invited address at the Long Island Psychology Conference held at Molloy College, Rockville Centre, New York.

Schare, M.L. (2006). A case history of phobia & functionality: a failure of a text book approach to treatment. Symposium : a meta-manual approach for intervention with real world scenarios: dealing with messy cases. Presented at the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, Miami.

Staples, C.E., Scardapane, J.R., & Schare, M.L. (2006, November). Effects of Virtual Reality Exposure on Speech Avoidance and Self-Reported Anxiety in Stutterers. Paper presented at the 41st Annual Convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, New York, NY.

Schare, M.L. (2005). Virtual reality psychotherapy: anxiety treatment and beyond. Presented Keynote address at Nassau County Psychological Association, Garden City, New York.

Schare, M.L. & Scardapane, J. R. (2005). Using virtual reality technology in anxiety disorder treatment. Presented at the New York State Psychological Association, Ellenville.

Roberts, M., & Schare, M.L. (2003). Behavioral treatment of an adolescent female with body dysmorphic disorder: a case presentation. Presented at the International Conference on Clinical Behavior Therapy for Emotional Disorders: Cultural Perspectives, held in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Macri, J. & Schare, M.L. (2003). The effects of information and exposure on treating public speaking anxiety. Paper presented at the 111th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Schare, M.L. (2001). The treatment of driving phobia with virtual reality. Grand rounds presented at the Psychiatry Department of St. Johns Medical Center - South Shore, Far Rockaway, NY.

Schare, M.L., Scardapane, J.R., Berger, A.L., & Rose, N. (1999). A virtual reality-based anxiety induction procedure with driving phobic participants. Presented at the 33rd Annual Convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Toronto, Canada.

Schare, M.L. & McVey, M. (1998). An overview of systematic desensitization and flooding for the treatment of phobia and related anxiety disorders. Workshop at the International Symposium: Modern Trends in Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy: Theory & Practice. Held at the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Publications

Schare, M.L. & Itzkowitz, M.I. (In Press-2016). Habituation & Exposure. In Wenzel, A.E. (Ed.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. New YorkSAGE.

Schare, M.L., Wyatt, K.P. & Skolnick, R.B. (2015). Exposure Therapy: Application to Childhood Anxiety. In Flanagan, R, Allen, K., & Levine E. (Eds.) A Practical Guide to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Schools.  New York: Springer. 

Schare, M.L., Skolnick, R.B. & Wyatt, K.P. (2015). Developing an Anxiety Hierarchy. In Flanagan, R, Allen, K., & Levine E. (Eds.) A Practical Guide to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Schools.  New York: Springer.

Tillman, M.A., Schare, M.L., Grove, A.B. & Skolnick, R.B (2013). Efficacy of Anxiety Production: Comparing Imaginal and Virtual Reality Exposure Procedures for Aviophobia. Journal of Mental Imagery, 37 (3 &4), 105-118.

Schare, M.L. & Wyatt K.P. (2013). On the evolving nature of exposure therapy. Behavior Modification37, 243-256.

Skolnick , R.B., Schare, M.L., Wyatt, K.P. & Tillman, M.A. (2012). Aviophobia Assessment: Validating the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire as a Clinical Identification Measure. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 779-784.

Hoffman, D.L. & Schare, M.L. (2009). The combined effects of virtual reality and imaginal exposure therapies with an elderly aviophobic patient. The American Journal of Integrated Mental Health Care, 1, 59-90.