SEXUAL MISCONDUCT POLICY
Membership in a university community carries with it the responsibility for mutual trust and respect and adherence to the standards of conduct established by the community. The University takes all allegations of Sexual Misconduct seriously and is committed to providing information, resources, and direction to the members of the Hofstra community so that together we can learn and work in an environment of mutual respect.
No form of Sexual Misconduct will be tolerated at Hofstra University. Sexual Misconduct, as more particularly defined below under Definitions, includes sexual harassment, sexual violence, and sexual assault, including rape, acquaintance rape, and other forms of nonconsensual sexual activity. Sexual Misconduct may vary in severity and consists of a range of behaviors that includes unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other unwelcome verbal, nonverbal, or physical conduct of a sexual nature that creates a hostile environment. Many forms of Sexual Misconduct are criminal behaviors and all create an environment contrary to the goals and mission of the University. Either a male or a female may be a victim or perpetrator of Sexual Misconduct.
Any violation of this Sexual Misconduct Policy is also considered a violation of the Student Conduct Code. All policies, procedures, and definitions applicable to other violations of the Student Conduct Code apply to complaints of Sexual Misconduct except as specified below.
- General Provisions
No individual shall be penalized or retaliated against in any way by a member of the University community for his or her participation in the Sexual Misconduct investigation or disciplinary process. This protection includes both the complaining and responding parties and individuals who participate in an investigation or hearing related to a Sexual Misconduct complaint. Any such retaliation constitutes a further violation of the Code of Community Standards, to be adjudicated under these procedures.
Generally it is the policy of Hofstra University to protect the confidentiality of members of the University community who may be involved in the Sexual Misconduct process, insofar as that is reasonably practicable. Specifically, the identity of the complainant, the identity of the accused student, and information relating to the Sexual Misconduct complaint will be disseminated only to those individuals who have a legitimate need to know, or as reasonably necessary for the purpose of investigating or resolving the complaint.
Students should understand that, upon informing a University employee of a Sexual Misconduct complaint, for the protection of the entire community, the University may investigate that complaint, even if the student does not wish to proceed. Therefore, students should understand that their complaint may be disclosed, as necessary, to persons other than the one(s) to whom the complaint is made, including the accused student. Notwithstanding, where claims of Sexual Misconduct are reported to University employees who serve in a professional role in which communication is protected under applicable federal, state or local law or regulation or licensing authority – including counselors in the Student Counseling Center and clinical staff in the Student Health and Wellness Center– such reports will not be further disclosed to the extent the communication is protected by law. Notice by a student to any such professional employee of Sexual Misconduct, i.e. where the communication is protected, shall not constitute notice to the University of such Sexual Misconduct.
Although the University will endeavor to maintain the confidentiality of Sexual Misconduct complaints and proceedings in accordance with this policy, it cannot prevent the further dissemination of information by individuals to whom such information was disclosed. Moreover, any response by the University may be hindered to the extent the complainant wishes to remain anonymous.
Harassment Policy and Sexual Misconduct
Violations of the Hofstra University Harassment Policy based on sex or gender are also violations of the Sexual Misconduct Policy. Complaints made against students under the Hofstra University Harassment Policy will be handled pursuant to the procedures set forth in this Sexual Misconduct Policy. For Sexual Misconduct complaints made by any member of the University community (including students) against a faculty or staff member, or other non-student, consult the procedures set forth in the Harassment Policy, available here.
New York State Law
Rape, sexual abuse, and other sex offenses are serious crimes under New York state law. Rape is committed when any person engages in sexual intercourse without consent by using forcible compulsion; or where the victim is physically, mentally, or legally incapable of giving consent. Other sex offenses under New York state law include engaging in oral or anal sexual conduct without consent, and certain nonconsensual touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of another person. Criminal penalties in New York for all such acts vary according to the circumstances, but can include prison sentences of up to 25 years. See also Code of Community Standards, Violation of New York State Law, and Reporting Violations for more information.
Alcohol and Other Drugs
Among college students, Sexual Misconduct often occurs when one or both parties are in an impaired state from alcohol or other drugs. Therefore, it is important to understand that intercourse or other sexual activity with a person who is unable to give free and full consent to the acts (e.g., because of intoxication or substance impairment) may constitute sexual assault or rape. See definition of “Consent” below.
The use of alcohol and other drugs does not make someone at fault for being sexually assaulted. Furthermore, the accused student’s use of a mind-altering substance does not in any way diminish his or her responsibility for Sexual Misconduct.
Accused Student. The student accused of violating the Sexual Misconduct Policy.
Charge. Document formally notifying the accused student that a charge of violation of the Sexual Misconduct Policy has been brought against him or her. The charge will contain the specific type of Sexual Misconduct with which that student is charged.
Complaint. See Section IV (A).
Complainant. The member of the University community who initiates a complaint against a student alleging a violation of the Sexual Misconduct Policy.
Consent. Consent means the active, knowing, and voluntary agreement to engage in a sexual activity without coercion or fear or threat of harm. Consent may be shown by words or through clear, unambiguous actions. It is the responsibility of the student who initiates sexual contact to obtain this consent; in other words, to confirm that the person with whom he or she is involved has consented to engage in a sexual activity.
There is no consent where:
- A person is coerced to participate through force or threats of force.
- A person is unable to consent for reasons including but not limited to:
- the person’s physical or mental inability to make an informed, rational judgment due to the person’s use of alcohol or other drugs
- the person’s physical or mental disability or other incapacitation
- the person’s age (being under age 17, the legal age of consent in New York)
Lack of consent will be found where the accused student knew, or a reasonable person in the position of the accused student should have known, of the other person’s incapacitation. Thus, there is no consent where the accused student knew, or a reasonable person in the position of the accused student should have known, that the complainant was unable to make an informed rational judgment due to his or her use of alcohol or other drugs.
The accused student’s impairment does not diminish that student’s responsibility to obtain consent. Consent must be obtained before each sexual act; the fact that a person has consented to one form of sexual activity does not mean that he or she consents to all forms of sexual activity. Furthermore, the fact that a person has given consent to a sexual activity in the past does not mean he or she consents to the activity in the future.
Specific forms of Sexual Misconduct include but are not limited to:
- Non-Consensual Sexual Contact: Any intentional sexual touching of a person’s genitals, buttocks, or breasts without consent. Non-Consensual Sexual Contact also includes an individual making a person touch him or her with, or on, any of these body parts.
- Non-Consensual Sexual Intercourse: Any sexual penetration (anal, oral, or vaginal), however slight, with any object or body part, without consent.
- Sexual Exploitation: Taking abusive or non-consensual sexual advantage of another. Examples include:
- Taking or transmitting sexual photographs, videos, or audiotapes without consent, or causing or permitting others to take or transmit such photographs, videos, or audiotapes without consent. This includes, but is not limited to, transmitting photographs or videos via the Internet or text message (“sexting”) without consent.
- Watching another person(s) engage in sexual activity or contact without consent; viewing another nude without consent (e.g. watching someone in the shower without consent); allowing a third party to observe sexual acts without a partner’s consent.
- Prostituting another student.
- Sexual or Gender-based harassment, which includes
- Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other nonverbal, expressive or physical conduct of a sexual nature; and
- Other verbal, nonverbal, or physical acts, or acts of aggression, intimidation or hostility, when based on gender or gender-stereotyping.
The above conduct constitutes sexual or gender-based harassment when it either substantially interferes with an individual’s ability to participate in or benefit from the University’s programs or activities or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment for learning or participating in University programs and activities.
- Unwanted flirtation, advances, or propositions of a sexual nature.
- Insults, humor, jokes, or anecdotes (not legitimately related to the subject matter of a course, if one is involved) that belittle or demean an individual’s or a group’s sexuality or gender.
- Unwelcome comments of a sexual nature about an individual’s body or clothing.
- Physically threatening a person because of his or her gender identity or expression or sexual orientation.
Student Sexual Misconduct Compliance Officer.
The Student Sexual Misconduct Compliance Officer (“Compliance Officer”), who is also the Assistant Vice President for Student Affairs, can be reached at 516-463-6815. The Compliance Officer is responsible for overseeing the University’s student-related efforts to comply with and carry out responsibilities under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (“Title IX”), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex. In this regard, the Compliance Officer is responsible for coordinating compliance with Title IX and this policy with respect to the investigations and disciplinary proceedings arising out of Sexual Misconduct complaints made against students, and addressing any patterns or systemic problems that arise during the review of such complaints. The Compliance Officer is available to meet with students as needed.
- Student Resources
You are the key to your personal safety on campus and in the community. We encourage you to educate yourself by attending educational programs that promote the awareness of sexual misconduct, rape, acquaintance rape, and other forcible and non-forcible sex offenses. Educational programs to promote the prevention of sexual misconduct are conducted for first-year students during New Student Orientation. Other programs on sexual misconduct, relationship intimacy, and related topics are offered throughout the year and are open to the entire Hofstra community. For additional information, please contact the Office of Student Affairs via email.
Crisis Management Team
The Crisis Management Team responds to crisis incidents reported to Public Safety, including incidents of Sexual Misconduct. Members of the team include the following or their designee and will be representative of both genders:
- Director of Public Safety and/or his/her designee
- Director of Student Counseling Services and/or his/her designee
- Dean of Students and/or his/her designee
- University Relations representative, if necessary
- Legal Counsel, if necessary
The Crisis Management Team will be sensitive to the fact that the victim of the sexual assault may not want to meet with all members of the team immediately. They will, however, make themselves available to the victim to provide ongoing services and assistance as needed. Options/services offered to the victim will include:
- Counseling services, both on and off campus.
- Medical services, both on and off campus.
- Options and assistance regarding reporting the case to the local police.
IF YOU ARE THE VICTIM OF SEXUAL MISCONDUCT
Your safety and well-being are of paramount importance. What you choose to do after an incident of Sexual Misconduct is up to you, but victims of Sexual Misconduct are encouraged to take the following actions immediately:
- Go to a place where you feel safe.
- Contact or have a friend contact Public Safety at (516) 463-6789, and/or the Student Counseling Services at (516) 463-6791 (Public Safety will contact Student Counseling Services during non-business hours), and/or the Health and Wellness Center at (516) 463-6745, and/or the Domestic Violence Hotline at (516) 542-0404. Male and female personnel are available to assist you.
- Go to a hospital emergency room. Public Safety or the police will provide transportation, if necessary.
- Medical evidence for use in the prosecution of a criminal offense is collected at the hospital. For this reason, you should not shower, bathe, douche, or change clothes. You may need to bring a change of clothes to the hospital in case what you are wearing is collected as evidence.
- Do not touch any evidence or straighten up the area where the assault occurred.
- Do not blame yourself. The person who assaulted you is responsible.
Victims of Sexual Misconduct should be aware of the following:
- Victims have the right to counseling, medical treatment, prosecution, and reporting of their case through the off-campus legal system, as well as the right to refuse all of the above.
- Victims will be treated with dignity and respect by campus personnel.
- Victims of crimes against one’s person have the right to be reasonably free from intimidation and harm.
- Victims shall be made aware of existing counseling and other support services that are available, both on and off campus.
- Any victim who does not wish to remain in his or her present residence hall or class section may be granted a transfer to an available housing space or class section, upon request, if reasonably available.
- During the investigation and until resolution of the matter, the University may take steps to protect the victim as necessary, including but not limited to no-contact orders, housing relocation, removal of the accused student from housing, and making a class schedule adjustment. See Section IV (B), below, for more information.
Hofstra University Public Safety ................................................................ (516) 463-6789
Hofstra University Student Counseling Services......................................... (516) 463-6791
Hofstra University Office of Residential Programs ................................... (516) 463-6930
Hofstra University Health and Wellness Center......................................... (516) 463-6745
Hofstra University Office of Community Standards................................... (516) 463-6913
Nassau County Coalition Against Domestic Violence................................. (516)-572-4700
Nassau County Dating/Domestic Violence Hotline.................................... (516) 542-0404
Nassau County Sexual Assault Hotline........................................................ (516) 222-2293
Any student who commits, aids, or attempts to commit Sexual Misconduct on University property, during the course of a University activity, or at any time or place in such a way as to impact on-campus activity, is subject to disciplinary action under this Sexual Misconduct Policy. The University reserves the right to adjudicate alleged violations of the Student Conduct Code arising from the same incident as an alleged violation of the Sexual Misconduct Policy in one proceeding according to the procedures set forth in this Sexual Misconduct Policy.
Hofstra University remains the official charging party in Sexual Misconduct proceedings, but the complainant and accused student have certain rights in these proceedings as set forth herein.
Any member of the University community may initiate a complaint against a student as soon as possible after the incident takes place by filing a report with the Department of Public Safety or the Office of Residential Programs. You may contact the Dean of Students’ Office or the Compliance Officer for any assistance you need with filing a complaint. See also process set forth in the Code of Community Standards, The Student Conduct Process, Complaint.
Students should understand that, upon informing a University employee of a Sexual Misconduct complaint, for the protection of the entire community, the University may be legally obligated to investigate that complaint, even if the student does not wish to proceed. Investigations will be prompt, thorough, and impartial and may last up to 60 days, depending on a variety of factors including the severity, extent and complexity of the allegations, or availability of witnesses. Where applicable, the University will coordinate with law enforcement agencies.
Where grounds for further proceedings have been found, the Office of Community Standards will issue a written directive requiring the students to schedule an Informational Meeting, discussed below. See also Code of Community Standards, The Student Conduct Process, Complaint, and Informational Meeting for more information regarding this process.
- Interim Measures/Summary Action
Upon receipt of a complaint, the University may take steps to protect the complainant and the larger University community as necessary, including but not limited to no-contact orders, housing relocation, removal of the accused student from housing, and making a class schedule adjustment. Failure of the accused student to adhere to the parameters of any interim measure(s) is a violation of this policy and may lead to additional disciplinary action. See also interim measures set forth in the Code of Community Standards, Sanctions/Summary Action and Violation of Law and Reporting Violations.
- Informational Meeting
During the informational meeting with the accused student he or she will receive the Sexual Misconduct Charge Form (the “Charge”), which servesas formal notification that a charge of violation of the Sexual Misconduct Policy has been brought against him or her. The Charge will contain the specific type of Sexual Misconduct with which that student is charged. See definition of Sexual Misconduct, Section II above, setting forth forms of Sexual Misconduct.
Both the accused student and the complainant will receive the Acknowledgment of Student Rights and Conduct Procedures form, which provides information about the parties’ procedural rights during their individual informational meetings.
Both the accused student and the complainant will be given the opportunity during their individual informational meeting to discuss and review the charges as well as any evidence to the extent permitted under confidentiality laws, including FERPA. Students will have the opportunity to ask and answer questions regarding the allegation(s) and the Sexual Misconduct disciplinary process. During their meeting, each party shall be provided with educational materials and resources regarding the prevention of Sexual Misconduct and the importance of consent.
- Options for Resolution
Following the informational meeting, there are three possible options for resolution:
- The accused student may elect to accept responsibility for his or her actions. In such cases, the Office of Community Standards will determine the appropriate sanction and the accused student will automatically waive his/her rights associated with a hearing. The complainant will receive notice of the election to accept responsibility as well as the sanction to the extent consistent with FERPA. The sanction will be appealable as set forth in Section V below.
- With the consent of both the accused student and the complainant, and if deemed appropriate by the University, the Charge may be resolved informally without a hearing, through measures including education, counseling, changes in housing or academic accommodations, and administrative actions. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution in an informal process, the disciplinary process will proceed to a formal hearing. Furthermore, the complainant has the right to end the informal process at any time and proceed to a formal hearing. Formal, face-to-face mediation shall not be used for cases of sexual assault (including non-consensual sexual contact or non-consensual sexual intercourse).
- Where the accused student denies responsibility or one or both parties request a formal hearing, the Charge proceeds to a formal hearing according to the procedures set forth below.
- The Administrative Board and Hearing Preparation.
Only an Administrative Board will adjudicate Sexual Misconduct proceedings; student board hearings are not available for these proceedings. The Administrative Board shall consist of three administrators/faculty, at least one male and one female, assigned by the Vice President for Student Affairs. All members of an Administrative Board designated to hear Sexual Misconduct charges shall be specially trained in adjudicating Sexual Misconduct proceedings. A Hearing Officer appointed by the Vice President for Student Affairs will serve as the Chairperson of the hearing and shall conduct the hearing in accordance with the Code of Community Standards and/or this Sexual Misconduct Policy, as applicable.
- Rights/Obligations of the Parties
When a Sexual Misconduct administrative hearing is conducted, the parties have the following rights and obligations:
- Notice of Hearing. The parties shall be informed by the Office of Community Standards, in writing, of the date, time, and place of the hearing. The hearing will be scheduled reasonably promptly following the investigation of the complaint (generally within fourteen (14) days of the completion of the investigation). The complainant and accused student shall be allowed a reasonable amount of time (approximately seven (7) business days) to prepare their statements and secure supporting information.
- Witnesses and Other Evidence. The complainant and accused student shall each have the right to speak for themselves, to present witnesses, and to challenge the evidence. Approval of any additional materials provided or witnesses/witness statements offered by parties for use/appearance at the Hearing is at the sole discretion of the University.
- The parties may call upon witnesses with knowledge of the facts to speak on their behalf. Each party must submit a written list of their proposed witnesses or any signed witness statements to the Office of Community Standards for approval at least five (5) business days prior to the hearing.
- The Office of Community Standards will send each party a written list of all approved witnesses prior to the hearing date. The University reserves the right to call additional witnesses up to and during the hearing at its sole discretion.
- It is the responsibility of each party to notify the approved witnesses he or she has called of the hearing time, date, and place to appear.
- Witnesses summoned by the Office of Community Standards are subject to a $100 fine if they do not appear as directed to testify.
- Parties may also submit any additional evidence in the form of relevant pictures, documents, or other written or electronic materials, subject to the approval of the University. Each party must submit the evidence to the Office of Community Standards for approval at least five (5) business days prior to the hearing.
- After the Office of Community Standards has had the opportunity to review such additional evidence, each party may review approved evidence by making an appointment prior to the hearing date with the Office of Community Standards. Parties must request such an appointment at least two (2) business days prior to the hearing, to allow adequate time to schedule an appointment to take place at a time prior to the hearing. Parties will not be given access to privileged information or information made confidential under FERPA or other applicable law.
- Removal of Board Member or Hearing Officer. The parties have the right to request the removal of a member of the board or the Hearing Officer with just cause. The request must be made to the Vice President for Student Affairs, and the party must be prepared to substantiate this contention. Removal of a member of the board or the Hearing Officer may be granted or denied based on the Vice President for Student Affairs’s determination as to whether or not there is just cause.
- Advisers. The parties shall have the right to seek an adviser of their choice, who may help the party prepare for the hearing, but may not speak on behalf of the party. Written notification of an adviser and an executed “Adviser Form” must be submitted to the Office of Community Standards at least one (1) business day prior to the hearing. Adviser substitutions may be made after this point but only if a previously submitted “Adviser Form” is on file.
- Adjournments. Each party shall be entitled to one (1) adjournment with just cause, as long as the request is made at least one (1) business day prior to the hearing. The Office of Community Standards will determine if an adjournment is warranted. Adjournments cannot be made to accommodate the schedule of an adviser or other student witnesses. Any additional adjournments may be granted or denied at the University’s discretion.
- Hearing Process
The usual format of a hearing is set forth below. The Hearing Officer has the discretion to change the order, as he or she deems appropriate. The University reserves the right to call appropriate University members to serve as witnesses and/or to offer testimony at the hearing. Any evidence introduced at the hearing shall be part of the hearing record (“Hearing Record”).
The Hearing Officer will conduct the hearing in an orderly manner, state the charges, rule on the relevancy of matters discussed and evidence presented, call witnesses, and coordinate and lead the questioning process. The Hearing Officer shall obtain affirmations from parties and witnesses of their obligation to testify truthfully.
- Cases will be introduced and charge(s) read by the Hearing Officer.
- Opening statement by complainant and/or charging party.
- Opening statement by accused student.
- Where applicable as determined by the University, statement/report from the investigator regarding the investigation.
- Where the investigator provides a statement/report, questions for the investigator from members of the board, the complainant, and the accused student.
- Statement(s)/report(s) from witness(es) on behalf of the complainant and/or charging party.
- Questions for the witness(es) in 6 from members of the board, the complainant, and the accused student.
- Statement(s)/report(s) from witness(es) on behalf of the accused student.
- Questions for witness(es) in 8 from members of the board, the accused student, and the complainant.
- Questions for the accused student from members of the board and the complainant. Each student may question the other, but the complainant has the right to be visually screened from the accused student, or to testify from a different room in the same building in which the hearing takes place.
- Questions for the complainant from members of the board and the accused student.
- Closing statement from accused student.
- Closing statement from complainant and/or University
Note: During the hearing, statement reports are provided verbally. If a witness or party is absent, the Hearing Officer will enter written statements pre-approved by the Office of Community Standards into the record. The parties will have the opportunity to challenge these written statements at the hearing in lieu of questioning.
Note: Neither party may ask questions about sexual history unless it is directly relevant to the Charge. Relevance shall be determined by the Hearing Officer.
- Deliberation and Decision
Following the close of the hearing, the Administrative Board shall deliberate, and the Hearing Officer shall serve as a non-voting facilitator for the deliberations.
The Board may not take into account as evidence of culpability the mere fact that a criminal investigation or prosecution is pending in relation to the events complained of.
The Administrative Board shall determine responsibility by choosing one of the following options:
- Responsible. The Administrative Board finds that it is more likely than not that the accused student violated the Sexual Misconduct Policy.
- Not Responsible.
- Sanctions and Remedies
If the accused student is found Responsible, the Hearing Officer or his/her designee determines the sanctions. See Code of Community Standards, Sanctions, and Minimum Sanctions.
In determining an appropriate sanction, the Hearing Officer or designee shall consider aggravating factors including (a) any record of past sexual misconduct or sexual harassment violations, (b) the nature and severity of such past violations, and (c) premeditation/intent to commit a violation.
The following should also be considered in determining the sanction: whether the sanction will (a) bring an end to the violation in question, (b) reasonably prevent a recurrence of a similar violation, and (c) remedy the effects of the violation on the complainant and the University community.
The University will offer counseling and academic support services, as necessary and appropriate, to any student involved in Sexual Misconduct proceedings. The University will also take additional steps, as appropriate, which could include training sessions and other measures, to prevent recurrence of violations, and remedy their effects.
- Decisions and Appeals in Sexual Misconduct Proceedings
Both parties shall be notified of the decision of the Administrative Board concurrently by the Office of Community Standards.
The accused student shall be notified of any sanctions, and, if consistent with FERPA or other applicable law, the complainant will be notified of the sanction as well. Complainants may be notified of any of the following sanctions: that the accused student have no contact with the complainant; or that the accused student is prohibited from attending school for a period of time, has been transferred to other classes or has been relocated to another residence hall.
Either party may request an appeal of the decision and/or sanction(s) by submitting a written petition for an appeal to the Vice President for Student Affairs within seven (7) calendar days after receiving the decision letter, on any of the following grounds:
- There is new evidence to warrant a new hearing; or
- The student’s procedural rights have been violated; or
- The severity of the sanction is inappropriate given the details of the case.
The student(s) must submit the written petition for appeal to the Vice President for Student Affairs (“Vice President”) specifying one or more of the above grounds. A request on any of these grounds must clearly explain, in detail, the basis for the appeal, and should include any available documentation. The appeal is limited to an inquiry of the issue or issues raised in the Charge.
The Office of Community Standards will notify the party who did not request the appeal in writing and that party will have five (5) calendar days from the date of notification to submit a response to the appeal. In addition to filing a written appeal or response, either party may request a hearing before the Vice President, which the Vice President may grant in his or her discretion. If such hearing is granted, each party will be permitted to present his or her position orally and may be questioned.
The Vice President or his/her designee will conduct the appeal in an impartial manner and will decide whether to modify or uphold the original sanction or decision. The decision(s) of the Vice President or his/her designee are final.
In situations where new evidence is introduced, the Vice President or his or her designee may decide, based on his or her discretion, to re-open the case with the original hearing board. Based on the new evidence heard, the original hearing board may uphold or modify its decision, and the Vice President may uphold or modify the sanction.
The Office of Community Standards is responsible for maintaining the Hearing Record together with the audio recording of the hearing (as set forth in the Code of Community Standards, Documenting the Hearing Process), pursuant to the University’s Record Retention Policy.
Throughout the foregoing process, the Compliance Officer, the investigator, the Office of Community Standards, the Hearing Officer, members of the Administrative Board, and other University employees involved in the administration and adjudication of Sexual Misconduct complaints may consult with the Office of the Vice President for Legal Affairs and General Counsel.